Turbidity is a measure of water's lack of clarity. Turbidity of surface water is usually between 1-50 NTU, however, water is visibly turbid at levels of 5 NTU and above. At our sites 3 and 4 the water was noticeably brown and cloudy. These observations agree with our measurements that exceeded the standard 50 NTU, where sites 3 ranged from 62.41-154.93 NTU, and site 4 from 7.9-470 NTU. This was probably caused by heavy rainfall, road runoff, and soil erosion. The Hawaii State criteria for turbidity are 5.0 NTU for the wet season and 2.0 NTU for the dry season. All the Kapaa sites exceed the criteria except Site #6.

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